Uliveto Termewas first mentioned in a document dated 975and is known since Middle Ages for its thermal springs. It lies between the first ramifications of Monte Pisano and the plain created by the lower course of the river Arno. This is an environment strongly marked by the counterposition of mountain and river. This circumstance is most evident in the village of Uliveto Terme, where the River and the Mountain are only a few hundred meters far one from the other, creating a strong contrast: here, the river flows calmly in a bight, while the mountain suddenly rises in a jugged outline, featured by Karst formations enhanced by the mining activity. The “heart” of the mountain has been exposed, creating steep, sheer walls of rocks right on the village houses.
The dualism “mountain/river has been one of the distinguishing features which have marked the History of this village. For centuries, the inhabitants have been living on activities linked to the exploitation of these so different but yet complementary environments: the mountain, with its mines of limestone. The river, which has always been the main mean of transport to Pisa, Livorno and Florence, and therefore a great source of profit for many generations of boatmen and fishermen.